The Association Between Whole Grains and Micronutrients Intake among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Yap, May Peng (2019) The Association Between Whole Grains and Micronutrients Intake among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Final Year Project (Bachelor), Tunku Abdul Rahman University College.

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Whole grain food has become an important contributor for increasing essential nutrients intake such as vitamins and minerals from the West. However, there is limited evidences regarding on the significance of whole grain intake for children in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine the relationship between whole grains and micronutrients intake in a sample of children from Kuala Lumpur primary children, Malaysia. This study with cross-sectional nature was designed to conduct three days 24-hour dietary recall to investigate whole grain and dietary intakes of 392 participants aged 10 to 11 years, a cluster sampled from five randomly selected national primary schools. The inclusion criteria of subject selection were healthy Malaysian schoolchildren aged 10-11 years, without mental and physical problems, and present on the day of data collection with consent form. While, students who absent on those days, ill or without the parental consent were excluded from the study. 392 students, a majority of them (55.6%, n=218) were whole grain consumers. The mean intakes of whole grain were 5.1 g/day (SD 9.8) and 9.2 g/day (SD 11.5) for the total sample and whole grain consumers, respectively. The highest whole grains intake was from other ethnic groups including Bumiputera (native) and Sikh children among whole grain consumers sample (p=0.044). Intake of vitamin C, calcium, thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, folate, cobalamin and whole grain was well below the level of recommendation. Significant positive associations were found between whole grain intakes and calcium (r=0.186, p=<0.001), iron (r=0.146, p=0.004), thiamine (r=0.459, p=<0.001), riboflavin (r=0.389, p=<0.001) and niacin (r=0.316, p=<0.001). Considering the whole grain intakes were positively associated with some essential micronutrient intakes, more effort is needed to generate public health strategies for increasing the whole grain intake.

Item Type: Final Year Project
Subjects: Technology > Home economics > Food. Cooking. Gastronomy
Technology > Food Technology
Faculties: Faculty of Applied Sciences > Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Food Science
Depositing User: Library Staff
Date Deposited: 07 Feb 2020 09:27
Last Modified: 24 Mar 2022 03:51