Comparative of Phytochemicals and Antioxidants Level in Skins and Seeds of Grape, Papaya and Honeydew Extracts Produced using Different Methods



Lim, Hui Jing (2018) Comparative of Phytochemicals and Antioxidants Level in Skins and Seeds of Grape, Papaya and Honeydew Extracts Produced using Different Methods. Final Year Project (Bachelor), Tunku Abdul Rahman University College.

[img] Text
Lim Hui Jing_Full Text.pdf
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (1MB)


Fruits are a popular dessert whereby only fleshes are consumed by removing the skins and seeds as wastage, however, these wastages have recruited in some application usage. The aims of the study were to compare the percentage of yield using Soxhlet solvent extraction (SOX) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). This study also determines the phytochemicals and antioxidant properties between skins and seeds of grapes, papayas and honeydews. From this study, the SOX had a higher yield percentage compared to UAE. By using SOX, grape skin (GSK) being the highest yield with 4.2968% and 1.1786% for honeydew skin (HSK) as the lowest. For UAE, 3.7057% for GSK being the highest and 0.4804% for honeydew seed (HSE) being the lowest. Grape seed (GSE) has the highest total phenolic content (TPC) value with the concentration of 609.0427 μg/mL, whereas, 16.1585 ± 0.0042 μg/mL for HSE is the lowest. For total flavonoid content (TFC) assay, it falls to GSE, 667.9778 ± 0.0036 μg/mL, meanwhile, papaya seed (PSE) with concentration of 10.6444 ± 0.001 μg/mL. has the lowest. The highest total antioxidant activity (TAA) content is GSE with concentration of 603.1176 ± 0.0015 μg/mL, in contrast to HSE, 31.3529 ± 0.0006 μg/mL being the lowest. For antioxidant compounds, PSE with the concentration of 14.0825 ± 0.0006 μg/mL has the highest percentage of scavenging activity, 90.824% concurrently, the lowest percentage of scavenging activity is HSE, 9.9133% with the concentration of 13.2722 ± 0.0023 μg/mL. Despite GSE having the highest TPC and TFC, fruit skins are higher than seeds in an overall aspect due to their active compounds which achieve high antioxidant activity, in the meantime, grapes have the highest phytochemical and antioxidant properties by contributing high phytochemical compounds that correlated with antioxidant activities. In conclusion, SOX is a better extraction method than UAE in terms of yield percentage but, due to the simplicity of UAE in terms of time consumption and apparatus set-up, UAE is still a better choice for phytochemical and antioxidant extraction. There is a potential for fruit skins and grapes to be used in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industry due to their high phytochemical and antioxidant level.

Item Type: Final Year Project
Subjects: Science > Natural history > Biology
Faculties: Faculty of Applied Sciences > Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Bioscience with Chemistry
Depositing User: Library Editor
Date Deposited: 03 Apr 2019 03:26
Last Modified: 08 Apr 2022 08:33